Electric vehicle higher voltage distribution box (PDU), also called high voltage distribution box, is really a high voltage system distribution device. Electric vehicles have the features of high voltage and higher current. They are usually equipped having a high voltage system in excess of 300V, and the working current can reach a lot more than 200A, which may endanger personal safety and also the safety of use of high-voltage elements.
Therefore, when designing and planning for a high-voltage power system, it is essential not only to fully satisfy the requirements of the vehicle's energy drive, but also to ensure the safety from the vehicle, the safety of the actual driver and passengers, and the safety from the vehicle's operating environment.
Generally, high-voltage components associated with power batteries, such as contactors and fuses of numerous circuits, are integrated into an electrical battery pack.
As the power storage device of electric automobiles, the power battery is restricted to the size and arrangement from the whole vehicle. At the exact same time, it is necessary to guarantee the convenience of maintenance of the ability battery system, reduce the number of times of disassembling the power battery power, and the high voltage box makes being.
The function of the electrical vehicle high-voltage box (PDU) is to guarantee the transmission of power and energy from the whole vehicle system, and it's the bridge between the power battery and also the power supply and signal transmission of every high-voltage equipment. And at whenever to detect the insulation problem, open circuit fault, ground fault and high voltage fault from the entire high voltage system.
Within electric vehicles, high-voltage components attached to the high-voltage power distribution container include: power battery, motor controller, a rate of recurrence converter, inverter power supply, electric ac, electric defrosting, charging stand, and so on.
Design principles and framework
In general, the design principle from the high-voltage distribution box is: small device arrangement, small size, simple to disassemble and assemble. Due to the small space of the cabinet and also the large current, the design targets the heat dissipation arrangement to prevent potential safety hazards caused through the increase in temperature focusing.
Thinking about the complexity of the vehicle room, the complexity of the vehicle structure and also the cost, the centralized power supply system is widely used in the market. The high-voltage power supply straight enters the high-voltage power distribution box and it is distributed to the system high-voltage electrical products based on the needs of the system. It's the function of ensuring the actual safety, system insulation, electromagnetic disturbance, shielding, sealing and vibration resistance from the entire high-voltage system and it's various electrical equipment. Very popular.
Before the large-scale popularization associated with electric vehicles, there are still many improvements within the design and technology of high-voltage submission boxes. Most of the high-voltage power distribution boxes available on the market use the design concept associated with industrial high-voltage distribution boxes, as well as their safety, reliability, and durability cannot meet the requirements of cars.
For example, for high-power capacitive lots like motor drivers and voltage-converting products (DC/DC), pre-charge processing and status monitoring are needed. Traditional electric circuits are hard to monitor effectively, and you can easily cause damage to high-voltage change parts (such as terminal sticking).
The often uses a product along with relatively high electrical parameters to resolve this problem, but it is not satisfactory when it comes to size and cost.
At existing, strong domestic and foreign enterprises have begun to build up intelligent high-voltage distribution boxes, usually adopting cast aluminum casings as well as connectors. The protection level gets to IP67. It has current as well as voltage acquisition functions. It offers high-voltage connection monitoring and padding monitoring. It has a high-voltage security management function. High-voltage power submission management function with pre-charging perform.
In the future, high-voltage distribution boxes will develop toward small size, light weight as well as intelligence.
The main elements
Electric vehicle high-voltage power submission box contains bronze, circuit breaker, atmosphere open, contactor, soft start, rate of recurrence converter, transformer, contactor, high voltage exchange, fuse, surge protector, transformer, ammeter, voltmeter, transformation Switch, etc. (For the analysis of numerous component markets and enterprises, please make reference to the “2015-2022 China New Power Vehicle Core Parts Industry Investment Prospect Report” published through the public.
1, high voltage exchange
The main circuit voltage of new energy vehicles is usually greater than 200V, which is a lot higher than that of traditional vehicles. In addition to the reduced voltage relays required by traditional vehicles, new energy vehicles additionally need special high-voltage DC relays. Every new energy vehicle requires 5-8 high-voltage DC relays – two main relays, 1 pre-charger, two fast chargers, 2 normal getting relays and 1 high-voltage program auxiliary machine relay.
The electric circuit within the electric vehicle belongs to high-voltage immediate current, and the general relay cannot meet the requirements. Currently, probably the most used ones are vacuum kind and gas-filled type relays.
Vacuum may be the ideal insulation. Since the high voltage arc is generated through the ionization of the insulating moderate, and the vacuum itself doesn't have medium, there is good isolation between your contacts. The complete vacuum state is just an ideal state, and some residual oxygen will stay. The oxygen will form copper oxide regarding arc and the copper electrode, the contact resistance increases, and the relay has the risk of failure.
At existing, the main application is gas-filled relays. The primary arc-extinguishing solutions for gas-filled relays tend to be hydrogen and nitrogen. It is full of pure hydrogen, and the deflection magnet can be used to assist arc extinguishing. In contrast to vacuuming and nitrogen filling, the hydrogen insulation performance is good which is difficult to ionize.
Compared along with traditional relays, high-voltage DC relays with regard to new energy vehicles have higher technology content and complicated manufacturing processes. From the perspective of the global market structure, the high-voltage DC relay brand includes a high concentration.
The production and research of products with this field are mainly concentrated within foreign companies, and the Chinese language market is dominated by international companies. The main companies tend to be Tyco, Panasonic, Omron, and Bosch.
Recently, domestic brands have also begun to become applied to new energy automobiles. Hongfa, Songchuan, National, Sanyou Lianzhong, Aerospace Electrical, Ningbo Ford and other businesses have products, among which Hongfa is really a domestic dominant brand, ranking very first in domestic enterprises.
In add-on, domestic new energy vehicles, for example, BYD also develop and create relays.
2, high voltage connection
According to the statistics from the public consultation, in terms from the global connector market, the marketplace concentration is relatively high, which is basically occupied by the USA, Japan, Taiwan, and other nations and regions. The world's top Dalian machine manufacturers account for a lot more than 60%, and the Tyco family makes up about more than 60%. More compared to 20%.
Relatively speaking, Chinese manufacturers are mainly situated in low-end and mid-range products. The very best ten domestic manufacturers have an industry share of only 18% within China, and there is a large gap between industry concentration as well as foreign markets.
In the long term, with the rapid development associated with new energy vehicles, communications, army, etc., Chinese manufacturers will have a sizable import substitution space later on, and some areas (such because new energy vehicle connectors) might even be overtaken.
In terms of the domestic market, there are a lot more than 1, 000 connector manufacturers within China, including about 300 foreign-invested businesses and about 700 local businesses. Mainly concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta and also the Pearl River Delta region. The actual development of China's connector marketplace is unbalanced. Most enterprises tend to be small in scale, single item types, new product development lags, as well as homogenization competition is serious, leading to fierce market competition and a decline within the gross profit margin of producers.
Electric vehicle auto connectors will vary from traditional industrial and conventional automotive connectors. Traditional connector devices are difficult to satisfy their high current and higher voltage requirements, so connector manufacturers will also be deploying high-power connection products with regard to new energy vehicles. In the actual field of high-voltage connectors, the benefits of international companies are obvious, but recently, domestic high-end products have also formed a particular industrial base, and gradually perfected advanced technology, and initially formed a powerful competitive advantage.
At present, high-voltage connector manufacturers that may supply in bulk in The far east include: AVIC Optoelectronics, Yonggui Electrical, Basba, Jiangsu Ruicheng, etc. Recently, second-tier enterprises have also begun to develop. From the perspective of product sales scale, China's gradually growing enterprises have gradually emerged within the domestic market. (For a comprehensive analysis, please refer to the actual “2017-2022 China New Energy Automobile High Voltage Connector Market as well as Enterprise Research Report”.
3, higher voltage wiring harness
The high-voltage harness is an essential component in the electric vehicle's connectors and cables through the operation of the vehicle. The hidden dangers from the high-voltage harness are mainly overheating or even burning, and the harsh environment also needs to have shielding performance and drinking water intake. Dust risk and the like. Unlike conventional automotive 12V makes use of, high-voltage harnesses also need to think about magnetic compatibility with the vehicle's electric system.
In actual use, the electromagnetic interference of electric vehicles is almost 100 times that of traditional internal combustion engine vehicles. The high-voltage harness of electric vehicles is really a highly efficient electromagnetic interference sending antenna and receiving antenna, which is the most crucial reason for the electromagnetic compatibility failing and radiation interference of electrical vehicles exceeding the regulatory needs.
The magnetic interference produced through the high-voltage harness will affect the integrity and accuracy from the data transmission in the automobile signal line, which will affect the handling and safety from the vehicle in severe cases. Consequently, in the outside of the actual high-voltage wire harness, it is often accustomed to inject glue and wrap the shielded wire to lessen the magnetic interference to the entire vehicle. The EU also regulates this content of 6 substances such because lead, mercury and cadmium found in automotive wiring harnesses, and requires RoHS accreditation.
China has no uniform regular for voltage and high voltage wiring harness. The actual previously implemented GB/T25085, GB/T25087 "60-600V low voltage cable for road vehicles" was created out of IS06722, for solitary or multi-core cable with a ranked voltage of 60-600V. Regulations and requirements happen to be made, but there are always spaces and gaps in standards with regard to high-voltage cables of 600V or more used in new energy automobiles.
In August 2016, the Ministry of Industry and It approved the release of the actual automotive industry standard QC/T 1037-2016 "High-voltage cable television for road vehicles", which had been officially implemented on September 1, 2016. This standard specifies what's needed, test methods, inspection rules, product packaging and marking of high-voltage wires for road vehicles with ranked voltages AC 1000 V/DC 1500 Sixth is v and below.
In the 1980s, Japan's Yazaki and Sumitomo started to develop special high-voltage wire harnesses with regard to Japanese auto companies. In the actual 1990s, Delphi in the USA began to develop high-voltage wire harness items for GM, and South Korea's LS provided high-voltage wire harness products for LG.
From the technical perspective, the high-voltage harnesses of Japan and America have formed a system, and also have been verified and continuously enhanced in actual use, and the actual technology is leading domestic businesses for 20-30 years. (For an in-depth analysis, please refer to the actual “2017-2022 China New Energy Automobile High Voltage wire harness Market as well as Enterprise Research Report”.
Fuses are used for AIR CONDITIONING and DC applications, and AC can be used in industrial power distribution techniques. The lithium battery, storage capacitor, engine, converter and electronic control circuit from the vehicle are all DC techniques. All need DC type combines for short circuit protection to make sure safe and reliable normal procedure and super short-circuit breaking impact.
In the electric vehicle high-voltage energy distribution box, the output terminal is principally connected to the auxiliary power system of the automobile. Within the general case of the energy distribution box, the electric heating system fan branch, the air-conditioning compressor department, the DC/DC branch and the charger branch are usually included.
On these four limbs, each branch needs to be designed with a line protection fuse. The reason is to cut off the ability protection circuit in time whenever each load is short-circuited to prevent vehicle fire.
The fuse has been more popular and used in large quantities because of its small size, good seismic resistance and low cost. It has become a recognized main element of electric vehicle short-circuit protection in your own home and abroad.
According to the fuses currently utilized in the electric vehicle industry, the most voltage of most models is usually less than 700VDC, and several models will be slightly greater than this voltage, so the fuses for battery protection could be divided into 500VDC and 700VDC. Primarily, the current level is mainly 200A~400A. (For a detailed evaluation, please refer to the “2017-2022 The far east New Energy Automobile Fuse Marketplace and Enterprise Research Report” published through the public.
The main core aspects of the high-voltage distribution box fit in with high-voltage components, and the specialized content is high. Foreign businesses have strong competitive advantages, plus some domestic enterprises assemble by buying foreign components. Large-scale high-voltage distribution box enterprises in your own home and abroad can provide a lot more than 60% of core components.
The scale and standards of high-voltage distribution boxes are usually dominated by car companies, and high-voltage distribution boxes, as well as component companies, develop and produce based on the needs of car companies. Nevertheless, at present, many high-voltage distribution boxes with regard to electric vehicles in China follow the look concept of industrial high-voltage submission boxes, and at the exact same time, there are insufficient relevant standards. The enterprises are in a number of products, and the products are of numerous types and the quality is actually uneven.
With the gradual maturity from the new energy vehicle market, what's needed for related technologies are additionally getting higher and higher. Within the next few years, technology competition will end up the main promotion factor from the PDU industry.